Q:What Is VAT?
A:The Value Added Tax, or VAT, in the European Union is a general, broadly based consumption tax assessed on the value added to goods and services. It applies more or less to all goods and services that are bought and sold for use or consumption in the European Union. Thus, goods which are sold for export or services which are sold to customers abroad are normally not subject to VAT. The VAT due on any sale is a percentage of the sale price but from this the taxable person is entitled to deduct all the tax already paid at the preceding stage. Therefore, double taxation is avoided and tax is paid only on the value added at each stage of production and distribution. In this way, as the final price of the product is equal to the sum of the values added at each preceding stage, the final VAT paid is made up of the sum of the VAT paid at each stage.
A:EU law only requires that the standard VAT rate must be at least 15% and the reduced rate at least 5% (only for supplies of goods and services referred to in an exhaustive list).
①VAT rates for 5 European countries ( UK,FR,DE,IT,ES): around 19% to 21%
②3 kinds of UK VAT rates: 20% standard rate (applicable to most goods and services); 5% low rate (such as household electricity or natural gas); 0% rate (for very few cases)
③DE VAT rates: generally 19%
Q:Types of US Government Agencies---FDA
A:The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products.
Q:Types of US Government Agencies---DOT
A:The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation. DOT is responsible for formulating traffic regulations, making restrictions on various kinds of transportations, including of dangerous goods transportation, that entering the country, and issuing relevant recognition certificates. Per DOT, transportation vehicles (cars, trucks, trailers, buses, motorcycles, etc.) and their parts (Brake hoses, brake fluids, lamps, tires, seat belts, seats, helmets, triangular warning signs, etc.) imported into the United States must be registered and reviewed before entering the market.
Q:Types of US Government Agencies---FCC
A:The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and homeland security.